A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive blue-blocking glasses for the treatment of sleep and circadian rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder

Yuichi Esaki, Ipei Takeuchi, Soji Tsuboi, Kiyoshi Fujita, Nakao Iwata, Tsuyoshi Kitajima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objectives: Recent studies have suggested that evening blue light exposure is associated with sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities. This study examined the effect of blue-blocking (BB) glasses on sleep and circadian rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: We used a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded design. Outpatients with BD and also with insomnia were randomly assigned to wear either orange glasses (BB) or clear ones (placebo) and were instructed to use these from 20:00 hours until bedtime for 2 weeks. The primary outcome metric was the difference in change from baseline to after intervention in sleep quality, as measured by the visual analog scale (VAS). Results: Forty-three patients were included in this study (BB group, 21; placebo group, 22). The change in sleep quality as per the VAS metric was not significantly different between the two groups (95% confidence interval [CI], −3.34 to 24.72; P =.13). However, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire score had shifted to an advanced rhythm in the BB group and to a delayed rhythm in the placebo group, and the difference in these changes was statistically significant (95% CI, 1.69-7.45; P =.003). The change in the actigraphy sleep parameters and mood symptoms was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Although concurrent medications may have influenced, our results suggest that BB glasses may be useful as an adjunctive treatment for circadian rhythm issues in patients with BD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBipolar Disorders
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 01-01-2020


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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