A novel mechanism of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension and hypocatecholaminemia due to autoimmunity against aromatic L-Amino acid decarboxylase

Eita Uenishi, Yusuke Seino, Akira Nakashima, Katsuhiko Kato, Mitsuhiro Kato, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Kota Ishikawa, Takako Izumoto, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yutaka Takahashi, Yoshihisa Sugimura, Yutaka Oiso, Shin Tsunekawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common condition. Many potential etiologies of OH have been identified, but in clinical practice the underlying cause of OH is often unknown. In the present study, we identified a novel and extraordinary etiology of OH. We describe a first case of acquired severe OH with syncope, and the female patient had extremely low levels of catecholamines and serotonin in plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Her clinical and biochemical evidence showed a deficiency of the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which converts L-DOPA to dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin, respectively. The consequence of pharmacologic stimulation of catecholaminergic nerves and radionuclide examination revealed her catecholaminergic nerves denervation. Moreover, we found that the patient's serum showed presence of autoantibodies against AADC, and that isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the patient showed cytokine-induced toxicity against AADC. These observations suggest that her autoimmunity against AADC is highly likely to cause toxicity to adrenal medulla and catecholaminergic nerves which contain AADC, resulting in hypocatecholaminemia and severe OH. Administration of vitamin B6, an essential cofactor of AADC, enhanced her residual AADC activity and drastically improved her symptoms. Our data thus provide a new insight into pathogenesis and pathophysiology of OH.

Original languageEnglish
Article number149940
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume714
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25-06-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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