A novel signal processing method using system identification for underwater surface electromyography

S. Uehara, Y. Muraoka, S. Tanabe, T. Ota, A. Kimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Currently, to record underwater surface electromyography (EMG), electrodes are covered with water-proof tape. For short-term measurement, waterproof tape prevents electrical leakage. However, during long-term measurement, water or sweat can contact the electrodes, changing the measurement conditions and gradually affecting the EMG data. The purpose of present study was to devise a novel method for prolonged underwater EMG recording, which estimate dry-land EMG from underwater EMG recorded by non-waterproofed electrodes using system identification techniques. Method: One healthy male participated in this study. System identification was used to convert underwater EMG signals to the estimated dry-land signals. Transfer functions were derived using two pairs of surface recording electrodes on the same muscle in parallel. System input was the EMG recorded using non-waterproofed electrodes; the output was the signal recorded underwater using waterproofed electrodes (supposed to be the same as dry-land signals). To examine the validity of the present method, three experiments were conducted. Result: There was a high positive correlation between the estimated dry-land EMG based on the non-water-proofed electrodes and the EMG obtained using waterproofed electrodes. To test the validity of long-term recording using the novel method, the estimated dry-land EMG signals were measured during 30 minutes of underwater stepping and were stable. Conclusion: The novel method using non-waterproofed electrodes with system identification techniques eliminated the effect of changes in measurement conditions and appears effective for long-term, underwater surface EMG recording.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-108
Number of pages6
JournalElectromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 03-2009
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)


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