Noncoding microRNAs regulate the expression of various mRNAs. We attempted to clarify the relationship between miR-27a genome polymorphism and chronic gastritis. The study was performed in 179 patients with no evidence of gastric malignancy. The severity of histologic chronic gastritis was classified according to the updated Sydney system. The frequency of miR-27a G allele was 34.6%. Although the frequencies of miR-27a G allele were increased in subjects with peptic ulcer or severe mucosal atrophy, no significant differences were seen. The miR-27a polymorphism showed an interaction with gender in relation to gastric mucosal atrophy (P=.090). In only male subjects, the miR-27a polymorphism was associated with the gastric mucosal atrophy (P=.039) and both atrophy and metaplasia scores in G/G group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The miR-27a genome region polymorphism may be an important definitive factor to develop the gastric mucosal atrophy in Japanese male subjects.
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