A review of recent findings on meal sequence: An attractive dietary approach to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes

Sodai Kubota, Yanyan Liu, Katsumi Iizuka, Hitoshi Kuwata, Yutaka Seino, Daisuke Yabe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


While adjustment of total energy and nutritional balance is critically important, meal sequence, a relatively simple method of correcting postprandial hyperglycemia, is becoming established as a practical dietary approach for prevention and management of diabetes and obesity. Meal sequence, i.e., consumption of protein and/or fat before carbohydrate, promotes secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the gut and ameliorates secretions of insulin and glucagon and delays gastric emptying, thereby improving postprandial glucose excursion. GLP-1 is known to suppress appetite by acting on the hypothalamus via the afferent vagus nerve. Thus, enhancement of GLP-1 secretion by meal sequence is expected to reduce body weight. Importantly, consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids such as meat dishes before carbohydrate increases secretions of not only GLP-1 but also glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which promotes energy storage in adipose tissue and may lead to weight gain in the long term. Dietary fiber intake before carbohydrate intake significantly reduces postprandial glucose elevation and may have a weight loss effect, but this dietary strategy does not enhance the secretion of GLP-1. Thus, it is suggested that their combination may have additive effects on postprandial glucose excursion and body weight. Indeed, results of some clinical research supports the idea that ingesting dietary fiber together with meal sequence of protein and/or fat before carbohydrate benefits metabolic conditions of individuals with diabetes and obesity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2502
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 09-2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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