Morphine is the most potent opioid analgesic currently available and its use is increasing for treatment of severe pain, however, long-term morphine exposure induces physical dependence/tolerance. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been established, several biochemical changes including intracellular cAMP systems and Ca2+ mobilization have been suggested. To evaluate the contribution of cAMP, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-2(2-oxo-1- pyrrolidinyl)acetamide] and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (theophylline, enprofylline and rolipram) on the development of morphine dependence/tolerance. Mice administered morphine (6 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily for 5 days, showed withdrawal signs (jumping, diarrhea and body weight loss) after naloxone challenge (5 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating the physical dependence to morphine. Further, the tolerance to antinociceptive effect of morphine was observed in these mice on the tail-flick test. However, coadministration of nefiracetam (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.), enprofylline (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and rolipram (0.3 or 1 mg/kg, i.p.) with morphine during the pretreatment period, significantly reduced the withdrawal signs, moreover, the tolerance was significantly attenuated. Acute administration of nefiracetam failed to reduce the withdrawal signs and did not affect the antinociceptive effect of morphine in morphine-naive mice. Theophylline (3 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) tended to attenuate the development of morphine dependence/tolerance. The present findings suggest that coadministration of compounds which increase cAMP level with morphine may be a useful strategy to attenuate the development of morphine dependence/tolerance in the clinic.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - 01-09-1998|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)