It is well known that the cell cycle is controlled by several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes whose expression and phosphorylation states vary with orderly periodicity. During the cell cycle, activity of the cyclin/Cdk complexes can be regulated directly or indirectly by a number of molecules, including protein kinases and phosphatases, p53, and Cdk inhibitors. Here, we show that the addition of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induced G2/M cell cycle delay in human SK-N-MC neuroectodermal tumor cells that express RET tyrosine kinase, accompanying actin reorganization. Cell cycle delay at G2/M was characterized by accelerated and prolonged Cdc2 phosphorylation and stabilization of cyclin B1 and Wee1 kinase expression. Interestingly, we found that phosphorylation and/or expression of Cdc2, cyclinB1, and Wee1 was controlled by the Rac1/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that the G2/M cell cycle delay may be necessary to prevent the mitotic progression of SK-N-MC cells with perturbed actin cytoskeletons.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology