Background: This study aimed to investigate patient adherence to face-down positioning (FDP) and non-supine positioning (NSP) following vitrectomy with gas tamponade for treating macular holes (MHs). Methods: Nursing records of 92 patients who underwent vitrectomy with gas tamponade for small-diameter (diameter < 400 μm) MHs during April 2016-June 2017 were examined. Forty-seven and 45 patients were instructed to maintain FDP and NSP (FDP and NSP groups), respectively. Patient adherence was evaluated seven times a day for 3 days, and the adherence rate was calculated. Results: The mean adherence rate was significantly higher in the NSP group (99.3% ± 2.7%) than in the FDP group (93.7% ± 13.3%; P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Forty-one patients (91.1%) in the NSP group had an adherence rate of 100%, which was significantly higher than that in the 24 patients in the FDP group (51.1%; P < 0.001, chi-squared test). No statistically significant difference was observed between the patients in the two groups regarding sex, age, MH diameter, and pre- and postoperative visual acuities. MH closure was achieved in all patients. Conclusions: Almost half of the patients in the FDP group did not obtain 100% adherence rate, suggesting that patient adherence was largely compromised. Patient adherence was better in the NSP group as patient compliance to NSP was better, however, 8.9% of patients were found in face-up positioning at least once. Incompleteness of patient adherence was common, although to differing degrees.
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