Along the axis between type 1 and type 2 immunity; principles conserved in evolution from fish to mammals

Takuya Yamaguchi, Fumio Takizawa, Uwe Fischer, J・m Dijkstra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A phenomenon already discovered more than 25 years ago is the possibility of naïve helper T cells to polarize into TH1 or TH2 populations. In a simplified model, these polarizations occur at opposite ends of an “immune 1-2 axis” (i1-i2 axis) of possible conditions. Additional polarizations of helper/regulatory T cells were discovered later, such as for example TH17 and Treg phenotypes; although these polarizations are not selected by the axis-end conditions, they are affected by i1-i2 axis factors, and may retain more potential for change than the relatively stable TH1 and TH2 phenotypes. I1-i2 axis conditions are also relevant for polarizations of other types of leukocytes, such as for example macrophages. Tissue milieus with “type 1 immunity” (“i1”) are biased towards cell-mediated cytotoxicity, while the term “type 2 immunity” (“i2”) is used for a variety of conditions which have in common that they inhibit type 1 immunity. The immune milieus of some tissues, like the gills in fish and the uterus in pregnant mammals, probably are skewed towards type 2 immunity. An i2-skewed milieu is also created by many tumors, which allows them to escape eradication by type 1 immunity. In this review we compare a number of i1-i2 axis factors between fish and mammals, and conclude that several principles of the i1-i2 axis system seem to be ancient and shared between all classes of jawed vertebrates. Furthermore, the present study is the first to identify a canonical TH2 cytokine locus in a bony fish, namely spotted gar, in the sense that it includes RAD50 and bona fide genes of both IL-4/13 and IL-3/ IL-5/GM-CSF families.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)814-859
Number of pages46
JournalBiology
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17-11-2015

Fingerprint

Mammals
Fish
Immunity
Fishes
immunity
mammals
Polarization
T-cells
fish
Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes
Tissue
Lepisosteus oculatus
T-lymphocytes
Macrophages
Interleukin-3
interleukin-3
Interleukin-5
Phenotype
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Cytotoxicity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Yamaguchi, Takuya ; Takizawa, Fumio ; Fischer, Uwe ; Dijkstra, J・m. / Along the axis between type 1 and type 2 immunity; principles conserved in evolution from fish to mammals. In: Biology. 2015 ; Vol. 4, No. 4. pp. 814-859.
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Along the axis between type 1 and type 2 immunity; principles conserved in evolution from fish to mammals. / Yamaguchi, Takuya; Takizawa, Fumio; Fischer, Uwe; Dijkstra, J・m.

In: Biology, Vol. 4, No. 4, 17.11.2015, p. 814-859.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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AB - A phenomenon already discovered more than 25 years ago is the possibility of naïve helper T cells to polarize into TH1 or TH2 populations. In a simplified model, these polarizations occur at opposite ends of an “immune 1-2 axis” (i1-i2 axis) of possible conditions. Additional polarizations of helper/regulatory T cells were discovered later, such as for example TH17 and Treg phenotypes; although these polarizations are not selected by the axis-end conditions, they are affected by i1-i2 axis factors, and may retain more potential for change than the relatively stable TH1 and TH2 phenotypes. I1-i2 axis conditions are also relevant for polarizations of other types of leukocytes, such as for example macrophages. Tissue milieus with “type 1 immunity” (“i1”) are biased towards cell-mediated cytotoxicity, while the term “type 2 immunity” (“i2”) is used for a variety of conditions which have in common that they inhibit type 1 immunity. The immune milieus of some tissues, like the gills in fish and the uterus in pregnant mammals, probably are skewed towards type 2 immunity. An i2-skewed milieu is also created by many tumors, which allows them to escape eradication by type 1 immunity. In this review we compare a number of i1-i2 axis factors between fish and mammals, and conclude that several principles of the i1-i2 axis system seem to be ancient and shared between all classes of jawed vertebrates. Furthermore, the present study is the first to identify a canonical TH2 cytokine locus in a bony fish, namely spotted gar, in the sense that it includes RAD50 and bona fide genes of both IL-4/13 and IL-3/ IL-5/GM-CSF families.

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VL - 4

SP - 814

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