Alpha/Beta Gliadin MM1 Is a Novel Antigen for Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

Yuji Aoki, Akiko Yagami, Tomomi Sakai, Satoshi Ohno, Nayu Sato, Masashi Nakamura, Kyoko Futamura, Kayoko Suzuki, Takahiko Horiguchi, Seiichi Nakata, Kayoko Matsunaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Screening for ω-5 gliadin specific IgE antibody (sIgE) has high diagnostic utility in cases of suspected wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA); however, negative cases may require confirmatory tests, such as the oral challenge test. Thus, newly identified allergens that can be used for the serological diagnosis of WDEIA are needed. This study aimed to identify additional sIgE biomarkers of WDEIA. Methods: Forty-two patients with WDEIA (5 negative/37 positive for ω-5 gliadin sIgE) were enrolled. For comparison, 8 patients with immediate-type wheat allergy without WDEIA and 20 healthy controls without wheat allergy were also enrolled. Extracted wheat proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE. Proteins that reacted with serum IgE antibody in 2D Western blotting (2D-WB) were identified using mass spectrometry. Recombinant proteins were synthesized in Escherichia coli, and the antigenicity was tested using ELISA and the basophil activation test. Results: In 2D-WB, nine proteins reacted with the serum IgE antibody from at least 60% of patients with WDEIA (n ≥ 25/42). ELISA revealed that alpha/beta gliadin MM1 exhibited the highest positive immunoreactivity in 23 of 26 patients who were positive for ω-5 gliadin sIgE (88%) and in 5 of 5 patients who were negative for ω-5 gliadin sIgE (100%). Alpha/beta gliadin MM1 exhibited significantly higher basophil activation in 14 patients with WDEIA when compared to 5 individuals without a wheat allergy. Conclusions: Alpha/beta gliadin MM1 sIgE exhibited the highest seropositivity, even among patients who were negative for ω-5 gliadin sIgE. The inclusion of alpha/beta gliadin MM1 in allergen-sIgE tests may improve the sensitivity for diagnosing WDEIA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1022-1035
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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