Although opioids are useful narcotic analgesics in clinical settings, their misuse and addiction in the United States of America and other countries are rapidly increasing. Therefore, the development of abuse-deterrent formulations is an urgent issue. We herein investigated how to select the ratio of an opioid and the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone in abuse-deterrent formulations for mice. The conditioned place preference (CPP) test was used to evaluate the rewarding effects of abused drugs. The opioids morphine (30 μmol/kg), oxycodone (3 μmol/kg), fentanyl (0.4 μmol/kg), and buprenorphine (0.5 μmol/kg) significantly induced place preference in mice. We also examined the optimal ratio of naloxone and opioids to inhibit the rewarding effects of the latter. Naloxone (3–5 μmol/kg) effectively inhibited place preference induced by the opioids tested. We calculated theoretical drug doses that exerted the same pharmacodynamic effects based on two parameters: μ-opioid receptor binding affinity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Theoretical doses were very close to the drug doses at which mice showed place preference. Therefore, the CPP test is useful as a behavioral method for evaluating abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids mixed with an antagonist. The ratio of naloxone with opioids, at which mice did not show place preference, may be an effective index for developing abuse-deterrent formulations. Ratios may be calculated for other opioids based on μ-opioid receptor binding affinity and BBB permeability.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|Publication status||Published - 08-01-2023|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology