An Infant Case of Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy with Heterozygous CFI Mutation and CFHR3-CFHR1 Deletion

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Abstract

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a disease that causes organ damage due to microvascular hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and microvascular platelet thrombosis. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated TMA (spTMA) is a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal infection. In addition, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is TMA associated with congenital or acquired dysregulation of complement activation. We report the case of a nine-month-old boy with refractory nephrotic syndrome complicated by spTMA in the setting of heterozygous complement factor-I (CFI) gene mutation and CFHR3-CFHR1 deletion. He repeatedly developed thrombocytopenia, anemia with schistocytes, hypocomplementemia, and abnormal coagulation triggered by infection, which manifested clinically with convulsions and an intraperitoneal hematoma. Eculizumab (a monoclonal humanized anti-C5 antibody) provided transient symptomatic benefit including improvement in thrombocytopenia; however, he developed unexplained cardiac arrest and was declared brain dead a few days later. In this report, we highlight the diagnostic challenges of this case and the causal relationship between spTMA and complement abnormalities and consider the contribution of heterozygous mutation of CFI and CFHR3-CFHR1 deletion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-193
Number of pages11
JournalTohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Volume258
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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