Purpose: To assess the working styles of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. Methods: In July, 2014, the Japan Surgical Society invited all their members (n = 29,861), through an internet campaign, to participate in a nationwide survey of surgeons. The items investigated in this descriptive study included demographic information and working styles, based on a questionnaire. Results: In total, 6211 surgeons participated (response rate 20.8%, 5586 men and 625 women). The largest age stratum was 40–49 years for men and 30–39 years for women. Overall, respondents identified their labor contract, including salary and work hours, as the highest priority for improvement. Women with children were more likely to be part-time employees, work fewer hours, and take fewer house calls/on-calls than their male counterparts. Moreover, women of all ages earned a lower annual income than men, irrespective of whether they had children. Perception scores for discrimination related to work and promotion were significantly higher among women than men (p < 0.01 and p = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: A significant difference in working style was observed between men and women working as surgeons in Japan.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes