In order to clarify the mechanism of the host response to influenza virus, gene-expression profiles of peripheral blood obtained from paediatric patients with influenza were investigated by oligonucleotide microarray. In the acute phase of influenza, 200 genes were upregulated and 20 genes were downregulated compared with their expression in the convalescent phase. Interferon-regulated genes, such as interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2) and vipirin, were strongly upregulated in the acute phase. Gene ontology analysis showed that immune response genes were highly overrepresented among the upregulated genes. Gene-expression profiles of influenza patients with and without febrile convulsion were also studied. In patients with febrile convulsion, 22 genes were upregulated and five were downregulated compared with their expression in patients without febrile convulsion. These results should help to clarify the pathogenesis of influenza and its neurological complications.
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