The annual survey of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy Renal Data Registry (JRDR) was conducted for 4413 dialysis facilities at the end of 2017; among which 4360 facilities (98.8%) responded to the facility questionnaire, and 4188 (94.9%) responded to the patient questionnaire. The response rate of the 2017 survey was comparable with the past, even though it was the third year after the new anonymization method. The number of chronic dialysis patients in Japan continues to increase every year; it has reached 334,505 at the end of 2017. The mean age was 68.43 years. The prevalence rate was 2640 patients per million population. Diabetic nephropathy was the most common primary disease among the prevalent dialysis patients (39.0%), followed by chronic glomerulonephritis (27.8%) and nephrosclerosis (10.3%). The rate of diabetic nephropathy and nephrosclerosis has been increasing year by year, whereas that of chronic glomerulonephritis was declining. The number of incident dialysis patients during 2017 was 40,959; it has remained stable since 2008. The average age was 69.68 years and diabetic nephropathy (42.5%) was the most common cause in the incident dialysis patients. These patients caused by diabetes did not change in number for recent several years. Further, 32,532 patients died in 2017; the crude mortality rate was 9.8%. The patients treated by hemodiafiltration (HDF) have been increasing rapidly from the revision of medical reimbursement for HDF therapy in 2012. It has attained 95,140 patients at the end of 2017, which were 18,304 greater than that in 2016. The number of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients was 9090 in 2017, which had been slightly decreasing since 2014. Further, 19.4% of PD patients treated in the combination of hemodialysis (HD) or HDF therapy (hybrid therapy). And 984 patients were treated by home HD therapy at the end of 2017; it increased by 49 from 2016. Trial registration: JRDR was approved by the ethical committee of JSDT (approval number 1-3) and has been registered in "University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry" as a clinical trial ID of UMIN000018641 at 8th August 2015. https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-bin/ctr/ctr_view_reg.cgi?recptno=R000021578 (Accessed 31 July 2019).
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