Annular Flow in the Upper Esophageal Sphincter Demonstrated with Dynamic 320-row Area Detector Computed Tomography

Yoko Inamoto, Eiichi Saitoh, Jeffrey B. Palmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Understanding bolus flow patterns in swallowing (rheology, the study of flow) is fundamental to assessment and treatment of dysphagia. These patterns are complex and poorly understood. A liquid swallow is typically biphasic, including air, so the actual bolus has both liquid and gas phases. We report a novel observation of annular two-phase flow (a ring of liquid around a core of air) as thin liquids passed through the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Dynamic CT was performed on 27 healthy asymptomatic volunteers swallowing liquid barium in a semi-reclining position. Each subject swallowed 3, 10, and 20 ml of either thin (14 subjects) or thick liquid (13 subjects). Sagittal and axial images were analyzed. Flow patterns in the UES were assessed on cross-sectional images. Annular flow was seen in the majority of subjects with thin liquid but few with thick liquid swallows. The percentage of Annular flow during UES opening was 3 ml 58%, 10 ml 58%, 20 ml 56% in thin and 3 ml 0%, 10 ml 4%, 20 ml 1% in thick. Annular flow was usually observed from the second or third frames after onset of UES opening. The other pattern, Plug flow was seldom seen with thin but was typical with thick liquid swallows. Annular flow was the most common pattern for thin liquids (but not thick liquids) passing through the UES. Annular flow has been defined as a liquid continuum adjacent to the channel wall with a gas continuum (core) in the center of the channel. The two regions are demarcated by a gas–liquid interface. Annular flow is typical for two-phase gas–liquid flow in a vertical or inclined channel. It results from the interaction of viscosity with cohesive and adhesive forces in the two phases. We infer that the difference in flow pattern between thin liquid–air and thick liquid–air boluses resulted from the differing magnitudes of viscous forces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1088-1094
Number of pages7
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 12-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Speech and Hearing


Dive into the research topics of 'Annular Flow in the Upper Esophageal Sphincter Demonstrated with Dynamic 320-row Area Detector Computed Tomography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this