To estimate whether antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) improve short- and long-term preterm offspring outcomes in singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) similar to pregnancies without HDP. This population-based retrospective study was conducted based on an analysis of data collected by the Neonatal Research Network of Japan on 21,014 singleton neonates weighing ≤1,500 g between 24 and 31 weeks’ gestation during 2003–2016. Logistic regression analyses were performed to compare short- and long-term offspring outcomes between mothers receiving ACS treatment and those who did not among pregnancies with HDP and without HDP. Of 21,014 neonates, 4,806 (22.9%) were born to mothers with HDP. ACS treatment was associated with significant decreases in short-term adverse outcomes in the both HDP and non-HDP groups, with similar reduced odds of neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). However, ACS treatment did not significantly decrease severe IVH (aOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.51–1.13) and periventricular leukomalacia (1.14; 0.78–1.66) in the HDP group. In addition, ACS treatment in mothers without HDP significantly decreased cerebral palsy (aOR 0.70; 95% CI 0.58–084), developmental quotient scores <85 (0.79; 0.69–0.90), and composite adverse outcomes (0.85; 0.75–0.96) at 3 years of age, whereas ACS treatment in mothers with HDP did not significantly improve these outcomes (1.04; 0.69–1.57, 1.11; 0.88–1.39, 0.96; 0.75–1.22, respectively). ACS treatment was associated with significantly decreased major short-term morbidities and mortality among extremely and very preterm neonates of mothers with HDP, with ACS treatment having a decreased effect compared to that observed in neonates of mothers without HDP. Although ACS treatment has no additional effects on offspring outcomes at 3 years of age, our results did not suggest that ACS treatment should be withheld from mothers with HDP.
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