Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen

Yukihiro Akao, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Munekazu Iinuma, Yoshinori Nozawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; α-mangostin, β-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and methoxy-β-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-β-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 μM in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of α-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by α-mangostin and β-mangostin, and S arrest by γ-mangostin. α-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of α-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. α-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly α-mangostin and γ-mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-370
Number of pages16
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-03-2008

Fingerprint

Garcinia mangostana
Xanthones
cancer
Cells
Bioassay
Cell growth
Cell death
Metabolites
Bioactivity
Medicine
Rats
Neoplasms
Chemical activation
drugs
cells
bioassay
metabolites
apoptosis
activity (biology)
mangostin

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

Akao, Yukihiro ; Nakagawa, Yoshihito ; Iinuma, Munekazu ; Nozawa, Yoshinori. / Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen. In: International journal of molecular sciences. 2008 ; Vol. 9, No. 3. pp. 355-370.
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Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen. / Akao, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Iinuma, Munekazu; Nozawa, Yoshinori.

In: International journal of molecular sciences, Vol. 9, No. 3, 01.03.2008, p. 355-370.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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AU - Akao, Yukihiro

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