Anticancer properties and metabolomic profiling of Shorea roxburghii extracts toward gastrointestinal cancer cell lines

Sutthiwan Janthamala, Bundit Promraksa, Malinee Thanee, Kunyarat Duenngai, Apinya Jusakul, Sarinya Kongpetch, Ratthaphol Kraiklang, Kidsada Thanee, Porntip Pinlaor, Nisana Namwat, Hideyuki Saya, Anchalee Techasen

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) ranks as the highest cause of cancer-related deaths globally. GIC patients are often diagnosed at advanced stages, limiting effective treatment options. Chemotherapy, the common GIC recommendation, has significant disadvantages such as toxicity and adverse effects. Natural products contain substances with diverse pharmacological characteristics that promise for use in cancer therapeutics. In this study, the flower of renowned Asian medicinal plant, Shorea roxburghii was collected and extracted to investigate its phytochemical contents, antioxidant, and anticancer properties on GIC cells. Methods: The phytochemical contents of Shorea roxburghii extract were assessed using suitable methods. Phenolic content was determined through the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while flavonoids were quantified using the aluminum chloride (AlCl3) method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the FRAP and DPPH assays. Cytotoxicity was assessed in GIC cell lines via the MTT assay. Additionally, intracellular ROS levels and apoptosis were examined through flow cytometry techniques. The correlation between GIC cell viability and phytochemicals, 1H-NMR analysis was conducted. Results: Among the four different solvent extracts, ethyl acetate extract had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents. Water extract exhibited the strongest reducing power and DPPH scavenging activity following by ethyl acetate. Interestingly, ethyl acetate extract demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity against three GIC cell lines (KKU-213B, HepG2, AGS) with IC50 values of 91.60 µg/ml, 39.38 µg/ml, and 35.59 µg/ml, while showing less toxicity to normal fibroblast cells. Ethyl acetate extract induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in GIC cell lines by downregulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Metabolic profiling-based screening revealed a positive association between reduced GIC cell viability and phytochemicals like cinnamic acid and its derivatives, ferulic acid and coumaric acid. Conclusions: This study highlights the potential of natural compounds in Shorea roxburghii in the development of more effective and safer anticancer agents as options for GIC as well as shedding light on new avenues for cancer treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number178
JournalBMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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