Objectives To compare remission status at completion of chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) with changes in total diffusion volume (tDV) calculated from whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) and fat fraction (FF) of lumbar bone marrow (BM) by modified Dixon Quant (mDixon Quant) soon after induction of chemotherapy, and to assess the predictive value of MRI. Methods Fifty patients (mean age, 66.9 ± 10.5 years) with symptomatic myeloma were examined before and after two cycles of chemotherapy. From WB-DWI data, tDV was obtained with the threshold for positive BM involvement. Mean FF was calculated from lumbar BM using the mDixon Quant sequence. At the completion of chemotherapy, patients were categorized into a CR/very good PR (VGPR) group (n = 15; mean age, 67.6 ± 10.3 years) and a PR, SD or PD group (n = 35; mean age, 69.1 ± 8.6 years). ROC curves were plotted to assess performance in predicting achievement of CR/VGPR. Results At second examination, serum M protein, β2-microglobulin, and tDV were significantly decreased and hemoglobin, mean ADC, and FF were significantly increased in the CR/ VGPR group and serum M protein was significantly increased in the PR/SD/PD group. The general linear model demonstrated that percentage changes in FF and M protein contributed significantly to achieving CR/VGPR (P = 0.02, P = 0.04, respectively). AUCs of ROC curves were 0.964 for FF and 0.847 for M protein. Conclusions Early change in FF of lumbar BM and serum M protein soon after induction of chemotherapy contributed significantly to prediction of CR/VGPR.
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