Diet plays an important role in the regulation of chronic inflammation, which is linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and several cancers. The dietary inflammatory index (DII®) was developed to estimate the inflammatory potential of an individual's diet. We examined the association between DII scores and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations using the baseline data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). Data were from 1176 control subjects (650 men and 526 women) in a nested case-control study of several cancers and CVD in the JACC Study who were free of cancer and CVD at baseline. DII scores were calculated from 26 food parameters that were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at the baseline. Energy-adjusted DII scores were calculated using the residual method. Serum hs-CRP concentrations were measured by latex-enhanced nephelometry or enzyme-immunoassay. In multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders including sex, age, smoking habits, drinking habits, body mass index, and history of hypertension, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for high serum hs-CRP concentrations (>1.0 mg/L) was significantly higher in the highest versus the lowest DII quartile (ORQuartile4vs1 = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.52). Likewise, a 1-point increase in DII score was associated with a 14% increased risk of high serum hs-CRP concentrations (ORContinuous = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.01 to 1.19). A pro-inflammatory diet, as represented by high DII scores, was associated with high serum hs-CRP concentrations in this Japanese population.
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