Association between intravenous immunoglobulin dose and outcomes in patients with acute Kawasaki disease

Nobuaki Michihata, Takanori Suzuki, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Kazuyoshi Saito, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The most effective dosage of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to prevent coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) in patients with acute Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown. This study aimed to identify the appropriate dose of IVIG to be administered to patients with acute KD, using a national inpatient database in Japan. We used the Diagnostic Procedure Combination database to identify KD patients treated with IVIG between 2010 and 2020. The primary outcome was the proportion of CAAs upon discharge. Secondary outcomes included IVIG resistance, length of stay, and medical costs. Data from 88,223 patients were extracted from the database. We found a U-shaped association between IVIG dose and the proportion of CAA, with the bottom of the curve at approximately 2.0 g/kg; the odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 1.34 (1.26–1.43) for 1.8 g/kg and 1.80 (1.29–2.51) for 2.4 g/kg with reference to 2.0 g/kg for CAA. Similarly, IVIG dose had a U-shaped association with the proportion of IVIG resistance, with the bottom of the curve at approximately 2.0 g/kg; the odds ratio (95% CI) was 1.39 (1.36–1.42) for 1.8 g/kg and 8.95 (8.15–9.83) for 2.4 g/kg with reference to 2.0 g/kg for IVIG resistance. Additionally, IVIG dosage was found to have U-shaped associations with the length of stay and medical costs, with the bottom of the curve at approximately 2 g/kg. Conclusions: IVIG with a dose of 2 g/kg was considered appropriate for the initial treatment of KD.What is Known:• For treatments of acute Kawasaki Disease (KD), IVIG has been the most recommended to reduce fever early and prevent complications of CAAs. Few studies have shown the most effective dosage of IVIG to be administered to prevent CAAs.What is New:• 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin was considered appropriate for the initial treatment of Kawasaki disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3607-3615
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Volume181
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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