Association between weight loss and food form in older individuals residing in long-term care facilities: 1-year multicenter longitudinal study

Akemi Endo, Yutaka Watanabe, Takae Matsushita, Kazutaka Okada, Yuki Ohara, Masanori Iwasaki, Kayoko Ito, Junko Nakajima, Yasuyuki Iwasa, Masataka Itoda, Rikimaru Sasaki, Yasuhiro Nishi, Junichi Furuya, Yoshihiko Watanabe, George Umemoto, Masako Kishima, Hirohiko Hirano, Yuji Sato, Mitsuyoshi Yoshida, Yutaka Yamazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Changing the food form for older adults requiring nursing care from a regular to dysphagia diet is thought to impact their nutritional status. We assessed the association between changes in food form and weight loss over 1 year in older adults. Older adults residing in long-term care facilities in Japan (n = 455) who participated in the baseline (2018) and follow-up (2019) surveys were divided into two groups (regular diet, n = 284; dysphagia diet, n = 171). The regular diet group was further divided into the weight loss (n = 80; weight loss ≥5% over 1 year) and weight maintenance (n = 204; weight loss <5%) groups. After 1 year, the Barthel Index significantly decreased, and the proportion of participants who switched from a regular diet to a dysphagia diet significantly increased in the weight loss group than in the weight maintenance group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that Barthel index variation (odds ratio (OR): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-0.99), change from a regular diet to a dysphagia diet (OR: 4.41, 95% CI: 1.87-10.41), and body weight at baseline (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) were significantly associated with weight loss. Our results suggest that maintaining the food form inhibits weight loss and improves health outcomes in older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10776
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume18
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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