Associations between proteinuria and cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensive patients in Andkhoy, Afghanistan

Mohammad Shoaib Hamrah, Mohammad Hashem Hamrah, Hideki Ishii, Susumu Suzuki, Mohammad Hussain Hamrah, Mohammad Hassan Hamrah, Maimaiti Yisireyili, Naoaki Kano, Kyosuke Takeshita, Junichi Sakamoto, Toyoaki Murohara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Proteinuria in hypertension is an early marker of renal disease and a predictor for the progression of end stage renal disease, and cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of proteinuria and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adult hypertensive patients in Afghanistan. Five hundred fifty-five patients with a high blood pressure recorded in an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan from December 2014 to May 2015, were included in this study. Data obtained from each patient, included demographic characteristics, body mass index, blood pressure patterns, cardiovascular history, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and current drug-therapy. Dipstick screening for proteinuria was performed with reagent test strips. The mean age of the patients was 57.9 ± 13.3 years, and a female predominance was observed (n = 333, 60%). The prevalence of proteinuria was 67.2%. The predictors of proteinuria were found to be age ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.04), smoking (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.17-3.02), heart failure (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.13-4.41), and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.49-7.81). In conclusion, this study shows that proteinuria is highly prevalent among hypertensive outpatients in an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan, especially in those with high cardiovascular risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-385
Number of pages9
JournalNagoya journal of medical science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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