Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with cognitive decline through multiple mechanisms, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology and cortical Lewy body involvement. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, AD-related plasma biomarkers have emerged as potential tools for predicting abnormal pathological protein accumulation. We aimed to investigate the association between AD-related plasma biomarkers and cognitive decline in PD patients. Methods: Plasma biomarkers were measured in 70 PD patients (49 with nondemented Parkinson’s disease (PDND) and 21 with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD)) and 38 healthy controls (HCs) using a single-molecule array. The study evaluated (1) the correlation between plasma biomarkers and clinical parameters, (2) receiver operating characteristic curves and areas under the curve to evaluate the discrimination capacity of plasma biomarkers among groups, and (3) a generalized linear model to analyze associations with Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Japanese version scores. Results: Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein significantly correlated with cognitive function tests, including all subdomains, with a notable increase in the PDD group compared with the HC and PDND groups, while plasma neurofilament light chain captured both cognitive decline and disease severity in the PDND and PDD groups. Plasma beta-amyloid 42/40 and pholphorylated-tau181 indicated AD pathology in the PDD group, but plasma beta-amyloid 42/40 was increased in the PDND group compared with HCs and decreased in the PDD group compared with the PDND group. Conclusions: AD-related plasma biomarkers may predict cognitive decline in PD and uncover underlying mechanisms suggesting astrocytic pathologies related to cognitive decline in PD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology