ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

Yang Soong, Takashi Okajima, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Stephen L. Odell, Brian D. Ramsey, Mikhail V. Gubarev, Manabu Ishida, Yoshitomo Maeda, Ryo Iizuka, Takayuki Hayashi, Yuzuru Tawara, Akihiro Furuzawa, Hideyuki Mori, Takuya Miyazawa, Hideyo Kunieda, Hisamitsu Awaki, Satoshi Sugita, Keisuke Tamura, Kazunori Ishibashi, Takanori Izumiya & 5 others Sari Minami, Toshiki Sato, Kazuki Tomikawa, Naomichi Kikuchi, Toshihiro Iwase

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. SXT-1 and -2 were tested with the broad but slightly divergent beam, up to 8 arc-minutes, at Goddard. The full characterization were carried out in Japan which includes: angular resolution, effective area in the energy range of ∼ 0.4 - 12keV, off-axis response at various energies, etc. We report the calibration results of the SXT-1 and -2 that were obtained at NASA/Goddard and JAXA/ISAS. The detailed calibration are reported in the two papers in this conference: 9144-206, "Ground-based x-ray calibration of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescopes" by R. Iizuka et al. and 9144-207, "Revealing a detailed performance of the soft x-ray telescopes of the ASTRO-H mission" by T. Sato, et al. Some small but significant discrepancies existed between ISAS and Goddard measurements that were attributed to the difference of the X-ray beams - pencil beam vs divergent beam.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014
Subtitle of host publicationUltraviolet to Gamma Ray
EditorsTadayuki Takahashi, Jan-Willem A. den Herder, Mark Bautz
PublisherSPIE
ISBN (Electronic)9780819496126
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2014
EventSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 22-06-201426-06-2014

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume9144
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X

Other

OtherSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
CountryCanada
CityMontreal
Period22-06-1426-06-14

Fingerprint

X-ray Telescopes
Soft X-ray
Telescopes
Mirror
telescopes
X rays
Quadrant
Reflector
mirrors
Telescope
quadrants
x rays
x ray telescopes
reflectors
Calibration
Epoxy
Gold
Mirrors
Figure
Energy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Soong, Y., Okajima, T., Serlemitsos, P. J., Odell, S. L., Ramsey, B. D., Gubarev, M. V., ... Iwase, T. (2014). ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). In T. Takahashi, J-W. A. den Herder, & M. Bautz (Eds.), Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray [914428] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 9144). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2056804
Soong, Yang ; Okajima, Takashi ; Serlemitsos, Peter J. ; Odell, Stephen L. ; Ramsey, Brian D. ; Gubarev, Mikhail V. ; Ishida, Manabu ; Maeda, Yoshitomo ; Iizuka, Ryo ; Hayashi, Takayuki ; Tawara, Yuzuru ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Mori, Hideyuki ; Miyazawa, Takuya ; Kunieda, Hideyo ; Awaki, Hisamitsu ; Sugita, Satoshi ; Tamura, Keisuke ; Ishibashi, Kazunori ; Izumiya, Takanori ; Minami, Sari ; Sato, Toshiki ; Tomikawa, Kazuki ; Kikuchi, Naomichi ; Iwase, Toshihiro. / ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. editor / Tadayuki Takahashi ; Jan-Willem A. den Herder ; Mark Bautz. SPIE, 2014. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering).
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abstract = "ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. SXT-1 and -2 were tested with the broad but slightly divergent beam, up to 8 arc-minutes, at Goddard. The full characterization were carried out in Japan which includes: angular resolution, effective area in the energy range of ∼ 0.4 - 12keV, off-axis response at various energies, etc. We report the calibration results of the SXT-1 and -2 that were obtained at NASA/Goddard and JAXA/ISAS. The detailed calibration are reported in the two papers in this conference: 9144-206, {"}Ground-based x-ray calibration of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescopes{"} by R. Iizuka et al. and 9144-207, {"}Revealing a detailed performance of the soft x-ray telescopes of the ASTRO-H mission{"} by T. Sato, et al. Some small but significant discrepancies existed between ISAS and Goddard measurements that were attributed to the difference of the X-ray beams - pencil beam vs divergent beam.",
author = "Yang Soong and Takashi Okajima and Serlemitsos, {Peter J.} and Odell, {Stephen L.} and Ramsey, {Brian D.} and Gubarev, {Mikhail V.} and Manabu Ishida and Yoshitomo Maeda and Ryo Iizuka and Takayuki Hayashi and Yuzuru Tawara and Akihiro Furuzawa and Hideyuki Mori and Takuya Miyazawa and Hideyo Kunieda and Hisamitsu Awaki and Satoshi Sugita and Keisuke Tamura and Kazunori Ishibashi and Takanori Izumiya and Sari Minami and Toshiki Sato and Kazuki Tomikawa and Naomichi Kikuchi and Toshihiro Iwase",
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Soong, Y, Okajima, T, Serlemitsos, PJ, Odell, SL, Ramsey, BD, Gubarev, MV, Ishida, M, Maeda, Y, Iizuka, R, Hayashi, T, Tawara, Y, Furuzawa, A, Mori, H, Miyazawa, T, Kunieda, H, Awaki, H, Sugita, S, Tamura, K, Ishibashi, K, Izumiya, T, Minami, S, Sato, T, Tomikawa, K, Kikuchi, N & Iwase, T 2014, ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). in T Takahashi, J-WA den Herder & M Bautz (eds), Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray., 914428, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 9144, SPIE, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, Montreal, Canada, 22-06-14. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2056804

ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). / Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Odell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Mori, Hideyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Sugita, Satoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari; Sato, Toshiki; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Iwase, Toshihiro.

Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. ed. / Tadayuki Takahashi; Jan-Willem A. den Herder; Mark Bautz. SPIE, 2014. 914428 (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 9144).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

AU - Soong, Yang

AU - Okajima, Takashi

AU - Serlemitsos, Peter J.

AU - Odell, Stephen L.

AU - Ramsey, Brian D.

AU - Gubarev, Mikhail V.

AU - Ishida, Manabu

AU - Maeda, Yoshitomo

AU - Iizuka, Ryo

AU - Hayashi, Takayuki

AU - Tawara, Yuzuru

AU - Furuzawa, Akihiro

AU - Mori, Hideyuki

AU - Miyazawa, Takuya

AU - Kunieda, Hideyo

AU - Awaki, Hisamitsu

AU - Sugita, Satoshi

AU - Tamura, Keisuke

AU - Ishibashi, Kazunori

AU - Izumiya, Takanori

AU - Minami, Sari

AU - Sato, Toshiki

AU - Tomikawa, Kazuki

AU - Kikuchi, Naomichi

AU - Iwase, Toshihiro

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N2 - ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. SXT-1 and -2 were tested with the broad but slightly divergent beam, up to 8 arc-minutes, at Goddard. The full characterization were carried out in Japan which includes: angular resolution, effective area in the energy range of ∼ 0.4 - 12keV, off-axis response at various energies, etc. We report the calibration results of the SXT-1 and -2 that were obtained at NASA/Goddard and JAXA/ISAS. The detailed calibration are reported in the two papers in this conference: 9144-206, "Ground-based x-ray calibration of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescopes" by R. Iizuka et al. and 9144-207, "Revealing a detailed performance of the soft x-ray telescopes of the ASTRO-H mission" by T. Sato, et al. Some small but significant discrepancies existed between ISAS and Goddard measurements that were attributed to the difference of the X-ray beams - pencil beam vs divergent beam.

AB - ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. SXT-1 and -2 were tested with the broad but slightly divergent beam, up to 8 arc-minutes, at Goddard. The full characterization were carried out in Japan which includes: angular resolution, effective area in the energy range of ∼ 0.4 - 12keV, off-axis response at various energies, etc. We report the calibration results of the SXT-1 and -2 that were obtained at NASA/Goddard and JAXA/ISAS. The detailed calibration are reported in the two papers in this conference: 9144-206, "Ground-based x-ray calibration of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescopes" by R. Iizuka et al. and 9144-207, "Revealing a detailed performance of the soft x-ray telescopes of the ASTRO-H mission" by T. Sato, et al. Some small but significant discrepancies existed between ISAS and Goddard measurements that were attributed to the difference of the X-ray beams - pencil beam vs divergent beam.

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Soong Y, Okajima T, Serlemitsos PJ, Odell SL, Ramsey BD, Gubarev MV et al. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). In Takahashi T, den Herder J-WA, Bautz M, editors, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. SPIE. 2014. 914428. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2056804