Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to cocaine neurotoxicity. The present study was performed to elucidate the role of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in cocaine-induced kindling (convulsive) behaviors in mice. Cocaine-induced convulsive behaviors significantly increased GPx-1, p-IkB, and p-JAK2/STAT3 expression, and oxidative burdens in the hippocampus of mice. There was no significant difference in cocaine-induced p-IkB expression between non-transgenic (non-TG) and GPx-1 overexpressing transgenic (GPx-1 TG) mice, but significant differences were observed in cocaine-induced p-JAK2/STAT3 expression and oxidative stress between non-TG and GPx-1 TG mice. Cocaine-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytic level was significantly higher in the hippocampus of GPx-1 TG mice. Triple-labeling immunocytochemistry indicated that GPx-1-, p-STAT3-, and GFAP-immunoreactivities were co-localized in the same cells. AG490, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, but not pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate, an NFκB inhibitor, significantly counteracted GPx-1-mediated protective potentials (i.e., anticonvulsant-, antioxidant-, antiapoptotic-effects). Genetic overexpression of GPx-1 significantly attenuated proliferation of Iba-1-labeled microglia induced by cocaine in mice. However, AG490 or astrocytic inhibition (by GFAP antisense oligonucleotide and α-aminoadipate) significantly increased Iba-1-labeled microglial activity and M1 phenotype microglial mRNA levels, reflecting that proinflammatory potentials were mediated by AG490 or astrocytic inhibition. This microglial activation was less pronounced in GPx-1 TG than in non-TG mice. Furthermore, either AG490 or astrocytic inhibition significantly counteracted GPx-1-mediated protective potentials. Therefore, our results suggest that astrocytic modulation between GPx-1 and JAK2/STAT3 might be one of the underlying mechanisms for protecting against convulsive neurotoxicity induced by cocaine.
|Number of pages||24|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 01-02-2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)