Background. Colonic diverticulitis is an important cause of polymicrobial peritonitis, which requires surgical treatment and cessation of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study was to examine whether plain abdominal computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating colonic diverticulosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and to explore whether colonic diverticulosis is a risk factor for enteric peritonitis. Methods. The subjects consisted of 137 consecutive CKD patients (Stage 4 or 5) who were candidates for PD from February 2005 to November 2009. Abdominal CT without contrast media was performed in all PD candidates. Results. Diverticula of the colon were detected by plain CT in 57 cases (41.6%). The number of diverticula tended to increase with age. The most common site of involvement of diverticulosis was the ascending colon. In patients treated with PD, the incidence of peritonitis was higher in patients with diverticulosis than in those without diverticulosis (P = 0.004). However, only one episode of enteric peritonitis was observed among patients with diverticulosis. The presence of diverticulosis did not affect cumulative or technical survival. PD was not selected in four cases due to a high frequency of diverticula with episodes of abdominal pain. Two cases developed severe diverticulitis with peritonitis and underwent resection of the colon. Conclusions. Our study suggests that plain CT examination is useful for detecting diverticulosis in CKD patients. Silent diverticulosis is not a risk factor for enteric diverticulosis-related peritonitis. PD may be contraindicated in cases having frequent diverticulosis with episodes of lower abdominal pain.
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