Atazanavir sulfate, an azapeptide inhibitor of HIV protease, has been associated with urolithiasis. A 60-year-old man with atazanavir-induced urinary sediment crystals verified by infrared spectroscopic analysis is described. He had been receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and also had a history of urinary lithiasis and been undergoing urinalysis once every month. Needle-shaped crystals were seen in his urine sediment and infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that these were atazanavir crystals. Because the presence of the crystals in urine do not always reveal an abnormality in the urinary test strip analysis, the urinary sediment needed to be observed microscopically in order to prevent future urolithiasis and renal failure in this HIV patient receiving atazanavir.
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