Objective This study proposes an automated classification of benign and malignant in highly integrated regions in bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) using a three-dimensional deep convolutional neural network (3D-DCNN). Methods We examined 100 regions of 35 patients with bone SPECT/CT classified as benign and malignant by other examinations and follow-ups. First, SPECT and CT images were extracted at the same coordinates in a cube, with a long side two times the diameter of a high concentration in SPECT images. Next, we inputted the extracted image to DCNN and obtained the probability of benignity and malignancy. Integrating the output from DCNN of each SPECT and CT image provided the overall result. To validate the efficacy of the proposed method, the malignancy of all images was assessed using the leave-one-out cross-validation method; besides, the overall classification accuracy was evaluated. Furthermore, we compared the analysis results of SPECT/CT, SPECT alone, CT alone, and whole-body planar scintigraphy in the highly integrated region of the same site. Results The extracted volume of interest was 50 benign and malignant regions, respectively. The overall classification accuracy of SPECT alone and CT alone was 73% and 68%, respectively, while that of the whole-body planar analysis at the same site was 74%. When SPECT/CT images were used, the overall classification accuracy was the highest (80%), while the classification accuracy of malignant and benign was 82 and 78%, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that DCNN could be used for the direct classification of benign and malignant regions without extracting the features of SPECT/CT accumulation patterns.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging