Background: Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. Methods: The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. Results: For the DHQ (n = 115), the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112), corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (rs = 0.307 and rs = 0.342, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58) and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54) ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Conclusions: Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women.
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