Binding to gangliosides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid is sufficient to mediate the immunomodulatory properties of the nontoxic mucosal adjuvant LT-IIb(T13I)

Hesham F. Nawar, Charles S. Berenson, George Hajishengallis, Hiromu Takematsu, Lorrie Mandell, Ragina L. Clare, Terry D. Connell

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

By use of a mouse mucosal immunization model, LT-IIb(T13I), a nontoxic mutant type II heat-labile enterotoxin, was shown to have potent mucosal and systemic adjuvant properties. In contrast to LT-IIb, which binds strongly to ganglioside receptors decorated with either N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc), LT-IIb(T13I) binds NeuAc gangliosides much less well. Rather, LT-IIb(T13I) binds preferentially to NeuGc gangliosides. To determine if the adjuvant properties of LT-IIb(T13I) are altered in the absence of NeuGc ganglioside receptors, experiments were conducted using a Cmah-null mouse line which is deficient in the synthesis of NeuGc gangliosides. Several immunomodulatory properties of LT-IIb(T13I) were shown to be dependent on NeuGc gangliosides. LT-IIb(T13I) had reduced binding activity for NeuGc-deficient B cells and macrophages; binding to NeuGc-deficient T cells and dendritic cells (DC) was essentially undetectable. Treatment of Cmah-null macrophages with LT-IIb(T13I), however, upregulated the transcription of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), four cytokines important for promoting immune responses. The production of mucosal IgA and serum IgG against an immunizing antigen was augmented in NeuGc-deficient mice administered LT-IIb(T13I) as a mucosal adjuvant. Notably, NeuGc gangliosides are not expressed in humans. Still, treatment of human monocytes with LT-IIb(T13I) induced the secretion of IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine that mediates differential control of leukocyte activation. These results suggested that NeuAc gangliosides are sufficient to mediate the immunomodulatory properties of LT-IIb(T13I) in mice and in human cells. The nontoxic mutant enterotoxin LT-IIb(T13I), therefore, is potentially a new and safe human mucosal adjuvant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-978
Number of pages10
JournalClinical and Vaccine Immunology
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 06-2010
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Microbiology (medical)

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