Copper toxicity steadily affects the livers of patients with Wilson disease. However, the toxic effect of copper on serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels remains to be clarified as a prerequisite for diagnostic tests. The clinical records of 33 cases were analyzed to clarify the natural history of Wilson disease. Phenotypes were simplified into hepatic, acute, and neurologic. The bio-low stage of both enzymes was less than 40 IU/L, the bio-moderate stage was intermediate between 40 and 200 IU/L, and the bio-high stage was more than 200 IU/L of either or both enzymes. Rebounded enzyme levels at the recovery period from anemia were presumed to be the chronic baselines when pre-anemic enzyme levels were not available in the acute phenotype. We investigated whether these enzyme levels may provide information useful for screening patients. The natural history of chronic Wilson disease consisted of the first increasing and second decreasing phases. The clinical courses of a 4-year-old boy and 12-year-old girl were representative of the 2 phases, respectively. All but one patient were in the decreasing phase. Negative correlations were obtained between age and enzyme level in the decreasing phase. The hepatic phenotype may be a prototype found throughout the 2 phases, and acute and neurologic phenotypes may be major complications in the bio-moderate and bio-low stages of the decreasing phase, respectively. Biochemical staging may provide a better understanding of Wilson disease when combined with phenotypes. Bio-high stage patients should be referred to a medical center for diagnosis.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Nagoya journal of medical science|
|Publication status||Published - 02-2014|
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