Purpose: In patients with urothelial carcinoma CIS (carcinoma in situ) generally has a poor prognosis. However, to our knowledge the outcomes of pure/primary CIS and the behavior of CIS concomitant with pTa-pT4 upper tract urothelial carcinoma managed by nephroureterectomy have not been previously specified. We explored the biological and prognostic features of concomitant CIS compared with those of pure/primary CIS. Materials and Methods: We queried a multicenter upper tract urothelial carcinoma database. Data from NUOG (Nishinihon Uro-Oncology Group) were analyzed, including patient gender, age, presence of bladder cancer and pT stage. Clinicopathological features were compared between the different subtypes. Cancer specific and overall survival, and the relative excess risk of death were estimated by CIS subtype. Results: We identified 163 patients with CIS in the upper urinary tract, of whom pure/primary CIS was noted in 24.5%. In the concomitant CIS cohort the pathological diagnosis of the nonCIS region was pTa, pT1, pT2, pT3 and pT4 in 4.9%, 22.8%, 25.2%, 44.7% and 1.6% of patients, respectively. The sensitivity of a selective urine cytology test was higher in the pure/primary CIS group than in the concomitant CIS group (60.0% vs 37.4%). At a median followup of 32 months 10-year estimated mean cancer specific survival was 92.4 months (range 83.7 to 101.0) in the overall CIS cohort. Ten-year estimated mean cancer specific survival in patients with pure/primary CIS was significantly longer than in patients with concomitant carcinoma in situ (111.8 months, range 101.0 to 122.6 vs 85.89, range 75.3 to 96.5, log rank p = 0.007). Conclusions: Patients presenting with concomitant CIS have a worse outcome than those who present with pure/primary CIS, suggesting a need to differentiate these 2 entities in the treatment decision process.
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