Background: We investigated the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) and weight change since age 20 years with liver cancer mortality among Japanese. Methods: The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). A total of 31 018 Japanese men and 41 455 Japanese women aged 40 to 79 years who had no history of cancer were followed from 1988 through 2009. Results: During a median 19-year follow-up, 527 deaths from liver cancer (338 men, 189 women) were documented. There was no association between baseline BMI and liver cancer mortality among men or men with history of liver disease. Men without history of liver disease had multivariable hazard ratios (HR) of 1.95 (95%CI, 1.07-3.54) for BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 and 1.65 (1.05-2.60) for BMI of 25 kg/m2 or higher, as compared with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 kg/m2. BMI was positively associated with liver cancer mortality among women and women with history of liver disease. Weight change since age 20 years was positively associated with liver cancer mortality among women regardless of history of liver disease. Women with history of liver disease had a multivariable HRs of 1.96 (1.05-3.66) for weight gain of 5.0 to 9.9 kg and 2.31 (1.18-4.49) for weight gain of 10 kg or more, as compared with weight change of -4.9 to 4.9 kg. Conclusions: Both underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) among men without history of liver disease, and weight gain after age 20 (weight change =5 kg) among women with history of liver disease, were associated with increased mortality from liver cancer.
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