Boron neutron capture therapy is based on a nuclear reaction between the nonradioactive isotope boron-10 and either low-energy thermal neutrons or high-energy epithermal neutrons, which generate high linear energy transfer α particles and a recoiled lithium nucleus (7Li) that selectively destroys the DNA helix in tumor cells. Boron neutron capture therapy is an emerging procedure aimed at improving the therapeutic ratio for the traditional treatment of various malignancies, which has been studied clinically in a variety of diseases, including glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, cutaneous melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, and extramammary Paget’s disease. However, boron neutron capture therapy has not been clinically performed for urological cancers, excluding genital extramammary Paget's disease that appeared at the scrotum to penis area. In this review, we aimed to provide an updated summary of the current clinical literature of patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy and to focus on the future prospects of boron neutron capture therapy for urological cancers.
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