Bowel movement frequency, medical history and the risk of gallbladder cancer death: A cohort study in Japan

Kiyoko Yagyu, Yingsong Lin, Yuki Obata, Shogo Kikuchi, Teruo Ishibashi, Michiko Kurosawa, Yutaka Inaba, Akiko Tamakoshi, Mitsuru Mori, Ichiro Tsuji, Yoshikazu Nakamura, Hiroyasu Iso, Haruo Mikami, Yutaka Inaba, Yoshiharu Hoshiyama, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Hideaki Toyoshima, Shinkan Tokudome, Yoshinori ItoShuji Hashimoto, Akio Koizumi, Takashi Kawamura, Tsuneharu Miki, Chigusa Date, Kiyomi Sakata, Takayuki Nose, Norihiko Hayakawa, Takesumi Yoshimura, Katsuhiro Fukuda, Naoyuki Okamoto, Hideo Shio, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Tomoyuki Kitagawa, Toshio Kuroki, Kazuo Tajima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Few risk factors for gallbladder cancer have been identified with sufficient statistical power, because this cancer is rare. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of bowel movement frequency and medical history with the risk of death from gallbladder cancer using the data set from a large-scale cohort study. A total of 113,394 participants (42.0% males), aged 40 to 89 years, were followed up for 11 years. Information on the medical history of selected diseases, history of blood transfusions, frequency of stools, and tendency toward diarrhea at baseline was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR). During the follow-up period, a total of 116 deaths (46 males, 70 females) from gallbladder cancer were identified. After adjustments for age and gender, history of hepatic disease (HR: 2.28; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.24-4.21), frequency of stool, and tendency toward diarrhea (HR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08-0.83) were found to be significantly associated with the risk of death from gallbladder cancer. Compared with those who had a stool at least once a day, the HR was 2.06 (95% CI: 0.82-5.18) for those who had a stool less than once in 6 days (P for trend=0.050). In this prospective study, constipation and a history of hepatic disease were found to elevate the risk of gallbladder cancer death, whereas a tendency toward diarrhea diminished it.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)674-678
Number of pages5
JournalCancer science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 08-2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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