Brain Distribution Characteristics of Xanthine Derivatives and Relation to their Locomotor Activity in Mice

SOHEILA HAGHGOO, TAKAAKI HASEGAWA, MASAYUKI NADAI, LI WANG, TAKEO ISHIGAKI, KEN‐ICHI ‐I MIYAMOTO, TOSHITAKA NABESHIMA

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Abstract

The relationship between the brain distribution and motor activity in mice of the xanthines, theophylline, enprofylline, 1‐methyl‐3‐propylxanthine (MPX) and oxpentifylline was investigated. Their plasma protein binding and hydrophobicity were also examined. When these xanthines were administered orally, enprofylline and oxpentifylline had no effect on motor activity. While theophylline increased motor activity over 10 mg kg−1, MPX caused a decrease in such activity over 10 mg kg−1. The protein‐binding behaviour varied among these xanthines and was closely related to their hydrophobicity, which is represented as a logarithmic partition coefficient (log PC). MPX had the highest hydrophobicity, while oxpentifylline had the lowest. Brain distribution characteristics varied among these xanthines, with the rank order of their brain penetration ratio, calculated as the ratio of brain to unbound plasma concentrations, being theophylline > oxpentifylline > MPX > enprofylline. The inhibition constants (Ki) for adenosine A1 receptors and cyclic 3′,5′‐adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)‐phosphodiesterase (PDE) of these xanthines were 44·6 and 134, > 1000 and 112, 26·4 and 49, and > 1000 and 111 μm for theophylline, enprofylline, MPX, and oxpentifylline, respectively. These findings suggest that the lack of effects of enprofylline and oxpentifylline on motor activity is probably due to their low brain penetration ratio or low adenosine A1 affinity in comparison with theophylline. The decrease in the motor activity by MPX may be, in part, mediated by cAMP or adenosine. 1995 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-419
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Volume47
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 05-1995

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science

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    HAGHGOO, SOHEILA., HASEGAWA, TAKAAKI., NADAI, MASAYUKI., WANG, LI., ISHIGAKI, TAKEO., MIYAMOTO, KENICHI. I., & NABESHIMA, TOSHITAKA. (1995). Brain Distribution Characteristics of Xanthine Derivatives and Relation to their Locomotor Activity in Mice. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 47(5), 412-419. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1995.tb05821.x