CD109 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, whose expression is upregulated in some types of malignant tumors. High levels of CD109 in tumor cells have been reported to correlate with poor prognosis; however, significance of CD109 stromal expression in human malignancy has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the tumorigenic properties of CD109 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Immunohistochemical analysis of 92 PDAC surgical specimens revealed that positive CD109 expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with poor prognosis (disease-free survival, p = 0.003; overall survival, p = 0.002), and was an independent prognostic factor (disease-free survival, p = 0.0173; overall survival, p = 0.0104) in PDAC. Furthermore, CD109 expression was detected in the stroma surrounding tumor cells, similar to that of α-smooth muscle actin, a histological marker of cancer-associated fibroblasts. The stromal CD109 expression significantly correlated with tumor progression in PDAC (TNM stage, p = 0.033; N factor, p = 0.024; lymphatic invasion, p = 0.028). In addition, combined assessment of CD109 in tumor cells and stroma could identify the better prognosis group of patients from the entire patient population. In MIA PaCa-2 PDAC cell line, we demonstrated the involvement of CD109 in tumor cell motility, but not in PANC-1. Taken together, CD109 not only in the tumor cells but also in the stroma is involved in the progression and prognosis of PDAC, and may serve as a useful prognostic marker in PDAC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology