Objectives: Helicobacter pylori infection causes atrophic gastritis, which affects the gut microbiome; the gastric acid concentration depends on the degree of atrophic gastritis. Helicobacter pylori eradication also affects gastric acidity. Here, we determined the differences in the post-eradication changes in the gut microbiome in relation to the progression of gastric atrophy. Materials and Methods: Ten patients were included in the closed group and five in the open group, consisting of patients with non-progressive and progressive atrophy, respectively, diagnosed by endoscopy. The faecal microbiome was analysed and compared among three time-points: before eradication, 8 weeks after eradication, and 6 months after eradication. The microbiome was analysed by targeting 16S rRNA using Illumina Miseq. Results: The relative abundance of 14 genera significantly differed between the closed and open groups before eradication, but only 12 and 6 genera presented a significant difference in the relative abundance at 8 weeks and 6 months after eradication, respectively. Of the 12 genera that differed between the closed and open groups before eradication, 8 genera, namely, Actinomyces, Aggregatibacter, Campylobacter, Granulicatella, Pyramidobacter, Streptococcus, Cardiobacterium, and Haemophilus, were oral-origin bacteria. Longitudinal changes showed that Haemophilus and Catenibacterium were consistently significantly more abundant in the open group than in the closed group during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The gut microbiome substantially differed depending on the progression of gastric atrophy, but this difference was decreased by eradication, especially the differences in the number of oral bacteria in the gut. Eradication therapy may improve dysbiosis that result from gastric atrophy.
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