The gut microbiota interacts with infectious diseases and affects host immunity. Liver disease is also reportedly associated with changes in the gut microbiota. To elucidate the changes in the gut microbiota before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication through direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), we investigated 42 samples from 14 patients who received DAA therapy for HCV. Fecal samples were obtained before treatment (Pre), when treatment ended (EOT), and 24 weeks after treatment ended (Post24). The target V3–4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from fecal samples was amplified using the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform. The diversity of the gut microbiota did not significantly differ between Pre, EOT, and Post24. Principal coordinates analysis showed that for each patient, the values at Pre, EOT, and Post24 were concentrated within a small area. The linear discriminant analysis of effect size showed that the relative abundances of Faecalibacterium and Bacillus increased at EOT, further increased at Post24, and were significantly increased at Post24 compared to Pre. These suggest that changes in the gut microbiota should be considered as among the various effects observed on living organisms after HCV eradication.
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