Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with an independent increased risk of lung carcinogenesis. The benefit of chemotherapy for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) in cases of IPF remains unknown. This study was conducted to elucidate the efficacy of chemotherapy for ED-SCLC in patients with IPF. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of ED-SCLC patients with IPF (all with distant metastasis) who received systemic chemotherapy. The response rate, toxicity, overall survival, and progression-free survival (PFS) were investigated. Results: Eleven patients treated with chemotherapy between January 2005 and December 2011 were the subjects of this study. The overall response rate with the 1st regimen was 63.6 %. The median overall survival was 7.0 months, and the median PFS was 4.7 months. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ED-SCLC patients with IPF may benefit from chemotherapy. A prospective study will be needed to confirm this in the future.
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