Conclusion: Persistent obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) occurs in approximately 20% of normal-weight children after adenotonsillectomy (T&A) and, in nearly 70% of them, it is caused by adenoid regrowth. Patients with severe or moderate OSAS showed a high incidence of persistent disease even after T&A. Allergic disease, severity and large adenoid size are associated with adenoid regrowth and persistent disease. Objectives: To investigate factors contributing to persistent OSAS and adenoid regrowth after T&A in normal-weight children. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study at a single institute and involved 49 normal-weight children with severe or moderate OSAS (apnoeahypopnoea index, AHI, ≥ 5) who underwent T&A. Background information, nasal endoscopic data and pre- and postoperative polysomnographic data were collected. A third polysomnography (PSG) was performed 1.5 year postoperatively in children who subsequently developed symptoms of sleep disturbance. Results: Thirteen children (27%, 13/49) were symptomatic 1.5 years after T&A. Allergic rhinitis (38.5% vs 11.1%, p 0.03) and allergic disease (69.2% vs 30.6%, p 0.02) were seen more frequently in these children. A third PSG confirmed persistent disease (AHI ≥ 5) in nine children (18.4%, 9/49). Six children (12.2%, 6/49) were diagnosed as having adenoid regrowth and three (6.1%, 3/49) underwent revision adenoidectomy.
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