We analyzed the total number of 42 events of acute exacerbation of chronic renal failure (CRF) in 35 patients who were admitted to the Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital Kidney Center between 1985 and 1990. These patients consisted of 16 males and 19 females with a mean age of 59. 8±12. 7 years. The most frequent original renal diseases were diabetic nephropathy (DM) and arteriolosclerotic nephrosclerosis (NS). The most frequent acute exacerbation factors were dehydration and infection. Four cases died and one case transferred to chronic hemodialysis, but the other 37 events (88%) in 31 cases recovered to normal renal functioning. Tentative dialysis therapy was performed for 12 events, in which the cases with DM as the original disease and infection as the exacerbation factor were responsive to this therapy. In the analysis of long-term prognosis, 7 out of 26 cases died of non-renal diseases, 15 transferred to chronic dialysis therapy and only 4 remained in a CRF state. The intervals between the date of discharge and that of the start of dialysis therapy was shorter in the cases with DM (mean of 5 months) or chronic glomerulonephritis (mean of 7. 6 months) than in cases with chronic interstitial nephritis, polycystic kidney disease and NS (mean of 17. 7 months). We concluded that even though many of the cases eventually transferred to chronic dialysis therapy, appropriate therapy during the acute exacerbation period could allow recovery to a natural progressive or nonprogressive course in each case.
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