Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is increasing in prevalence as a causative pathogen of communityacquired pneumonia (CAP). However, reports on the clinical features and mortality risk factors for S. aureus CAP are limited. We therefore aimed to identify the clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality in these patients. We performed a post hoc and multivariate analysis of a multicenter prospective observational study that included adult hospitalized patients with S. aureus CAP. To elucidate the features of S. aureus CAP, we comparatively analyzed pneumococcal CAP (PCAP). We analyzed 196 patients with S. aureus CAP and 198 patients with PCAP. S. aureus CAP had a 30-day mortality of 16% (31/196) and a higher frequency of factors such as advanced age, comorbidities, poor functional ability, altered mental status, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia/hypernatremia, acidemia, and hypoxemia. In the multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for mortality in S. aureus CAP were PaO2/FiO2 ≤250 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20–9.04] and albumin <3.0 g/dL (AOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.01–5.83). Non-ambulatory status tended to increase the risk (AOR, 2.40; 95% CI, 0.93–6.17). Methicillin resistance was not associated with mortality. In PCAP, hypoalbuminemia and non-ambulatory status affected mortality but hypoxemia did not. In conclusion, patients with S. aureus CAP have distinct clinical features, and their mortality risk factors can include hypoxemia and hypoalbuminemia. Physicians should recognize that the factors influencing mortality might differ somewhat among causative pathogens, and appropriate management should be performed after obtaining information on the causative pathogen.
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