Purpose: This study was performed to clarify the clinical features of ischemic colitis (IC) after colorectal cancer surgery. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 35 patients with IC. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had undergone colorectal cancer surgery (POIC group, n = 13) and those who had not undergone colorectal cancer surgery (NOIC group, n = 22). Gangrenous colitis was seen in one patient in the POIC group, and transient colitis was seen in the remaining 34 patients. Results: Among the patients with transient colitis, there were significantly more patients without underlying diseases or promoting factors in the POIC group than in the NOIC group (P = 0.01). Abdominal pain was more frequently reported in the NOIC group than in the POIC group as both the initial symptom (P = 0.02) and throughout the disease course (P = 0.02). Ischemic changes occupying more than half the circumference of the intestinal wall were more frequently found in the NOIC group than in the POIC group (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Although transient POIC may occur without any underlying disease, severe symptoms rarely occur. However, if POIC occurs in a patient with severe underlying disease, then the occurrence of severe colitis should be considered.
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