Chromothripsis was initially described as a novel cause of chromosomal rearrangements in cancer cells and was subsequently implicated in the development of gross chromosomal rearrangements in the germline. Other catastrophic cellular events such as chromoanasynthesis and chromoplexy have also been observed in human cells. Such events have been associated with various phenotypes including mental retardation and congenital malformations. Here, we introduce representative cases of human disorders arising from somatic or germline chromothripsis or similar catastrophic events. In this chapter, we use the term “chromoanagenesis” to indicate all catastrophic events including chromothripsis.