The prognostic role of D-dimer in different types of heart failure (HF) is poorly understood. We investigated the prognostic value of D-dimer on admission, both independently and in combination with the Get With The Guidelines—Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) risk score and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and acute decompensated HF (HFpEF) or reduced LVEF (HFrEF). Baseline D-dimer levels were measured on admission in 1670 patients (mean age: 75 years) who were hospitalized for worsening HF. Of those patients, 586 (35%) were categorized as HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 50%) and 1084 as HFrEF (LVEF < 50%). During the 12-month follow-up period after admission, 360 patients died. Elevated levels (at least the highest tertile value) of D-dimer, GWTG-HF risk score, and NT-proBNP were all independently associated with mortality in all HFpEF and HFrEF patients (all p < 0.05). Adding D-dimer to a baseline model with a GWTG-HF risk score and NT-proBNP improved the net reclassification and integrated discrimination improvement for mortality greater than the baseline model alone in all populations (all p < 0.001). The number of elevations in D-dimer, GWTG-HF risk score, and NT-proBNP were independently associated with a higher risk of mortality in all study populations (HFpEF and HFrEF patients; all p < 0.001). The combination of D- dimer, which is independently predictive of mortality, with the GWTG-HF risk score and NT-proBNP could improve early prediction of 12-month mortality in patients with acute decompensated HF, regardless of the HF phenotype.
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