Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with diabetic nephropathy as well as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can be called “diabetic hepatopathy or diabetic liver disease”. NASH, a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty disease (NAFLD), can sometimes progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic failure. T2D patients are at higher risk for liver-related mortality compared with the nondiabetic population. NAFLD is closely associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetic nephropathy according to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Simultaneous kidney liver transplantation (SKLT) is dramatically increasing in the United States, because NASH-related cirrhosis often complicates end-stage renal disease. Growing evidence suggests that NAFLD and CKD share common pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH and diabetic nephropathy/CKD. There are no approved therapies for NASH, but a variety of drug pipelines are now under development. Several agents of them can also ameliorate diabetic nephropathy/CKD, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists, apoptosis signaling kinase 1 inhibitor, nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, C-C chemokine receptor types 2/5 antagonist and nonsteroidal mineral corticoid receptor antagonist. This review focuses on common drug pipelines in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy and hepatopathy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry