Objectives/Hypothesis Vocal fold scar remains a therapeutic challenge. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, few in vivo studies have directly compared various sources of MSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in comparison with bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) for vocal fold regeneration. Study Design Prospective animal experiments with controls. Methods Two months after stripping of the lamina propria, 18 beagles were divided into four implantation groups: atelocollagen alone (collagen group), atelocollagen with BMSCs (BMSC-collagen), atelocollagen with ASCs (ASC-collagen), or a sham-treated group. One or 6 months after implantation, vibratory and histological examinations were performed. Results Mucosal vibration was significantly improved in both of the MSC-implanted groups compared with the sham-treated group, whereas only the ASC-collagen group showed a significantly smaller glottal gap than the collagen group. Moreover, in the ASC-collagen group, a significant reduction of collagen density was observed compared to the sham-treated group, and there was a trend for better restoration of hyaluronic acid (HA). Implanted MSCs were detected 1 month postimplantation; however, none survived 6 months postimplantation. Conclusions Although implantation of an atelocollagen sponge and ASCs into vocal fold scars induced vibratory recovery comparable to that of BMSCs, ASCs might have more potential in terms of restoration of HA and suppression of excessive collagen deposition.
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